Asynchronous File Uploads

Accepting file uploads in web applications is very delicate, because all actions for dealing with attachments are slow:

  • uploading files to your app
  • uploading files to an external storage
  • file processing
  • deleting files

A vanilla file upload implementation where all of this is synchronous has two main downsides: (a) the UI is blocked during these actions, (b) your application’s throughput is reduced.

Even if through some miracle you only have to deal with plaintext files, you will likely still start experiencing these problems when your user traffic increases. Synchronous uploads were acceptable in early ages of web, but today we’re better than that.


Generally the optimal way to implement file uploads as attachments in applications is to have two phases: caching and storing. Before input validation, the uploaded file is saved to a temporary location (“caching”). After validations have passed and the record is being saved, the file is taken from the cache, is optionally processed, and it’s saved into a permanent location (“storing”).

There are numerous benefits to this design, but there is one that stands out and is the topic of this post – it allows you to create a completely asynchronous file upload workflow.


  1. User chooses the file in the form
  2. JavaScript starts caching it asynchronously (to a separate endpoint)
  3. After cached file is uploaded, the form field is filled with file’s identifier
  4. When the form is submitted, only the identifier is sent over the wire
  5. Processing and storing is kicked into a background job
  6. Record saves instantaneously
  7. Background job on completion updates the record with stored attachment(s)


  1. User clicks to delete the record with an attachment
  2. Deleting the file(s) is kicked into a background job
  3. Record is deleted instantaneously

Even though caching of the file via AJAX still takes the same time as if it was done synchronously on form submit, users are now much happier since their UI isn’t blocked, allowing them to do other things until the upload finishes. In the meanwhile they ideally see a nice progress bar letting them know when the upload will finish.

Utilizing this asynchronous workflow is crucial for good user experience and maintaining your application’s throughput. In the continuation of this post I want take a look at existing file upload libraries and analyze their abilities for asynchronicity, having the following criteria in mind:

  • Direct upload – Is it possible to implement direct (AJAX) uploads?
  • Storing – Can storing be put into a background job?
  • Deleting – Can deleting be put into a background job?
  • Simplicity – How easy is the setup and how transparent is the implementation?
  • Flexibility – How customizable is the choice of backgrounding mechanism?
  • Encapsulation – How gracefully can you degrade while the background job is working?
  • Thread-safety – Can background jobs safely run in parallel?
  • Introspection – How easy it is to debug background job failures?
  • Adaptation – Do background jobs react on state changes (e.g. record getting deleted)?



Paperclip unfortunately doesn’t do file caching, so there is no straightforward way to implement direct (AJAX) upload. The main storage cannot be used for direct uploads, because then attackers would be able to easily flood it.

For asynchronous processing there is delayed_paperclip, which has couple of upsides:

  • most backgrounding libraries are supported, and you can use your own worker classes (although it isn’t documented)
  • the original file is available to you while the background job is working, so you can gracefully degrade
  • you can process some styles in the foreground and some in the background
  • jobs properly abort when record is missing
class Photo < ActiveRecord::Base
  has_attached_file :image, styles: {thumb: "300x300>"}
  process_in_background :image

Unfortunately, a huge downside of delayed_paperclip is that storing the original file cannot be put into background. This means that the user has to wait for the file to be uploaded twice (first to the app, then to the storage), before any backgrounding even takes place. And that is really slow :snail:. You cannot even process the original file to reduce its filesize (before the second upload), it has to be uploaded raw both times. This really hurts your application’s throughput, and database’s as well; ActiveRecord wraps record saving into a transaction, which means a transaction is open for the whole duration of the upload!

Another big downside of delayed_paperclip is that you cannot delete files in the background. This is might not be such a big deal when you only have a single file, but it sure is when you have multiple styles (one HTTP request per style).

In your views you also have to specially handle the case when the styles haven’t finished processing. And to be able to do that you need to add an additional database column (on top of the 4 attachment columns you already have). However, this design doesn’t handle parallel jobs well; if the user makes two consecutive updates, it can happen that the old job upon finishing sets the column to “not processing” while the new job is still working, which can temporarily cause broken links.

If a background job fails because of an error, the file that caused the error can be found only if the attachment hasn’t changed in the meanwhile. Otherwise it’s necessary to either to implement context collecting for error reports, or keep a history of record updates.

The setup of delayed_paperclip is quite complex; ActiveRecord::Base and Paperclip::Attachment have to be extended with modules, the URL generator needs to be replaced, a column added, and a class method called. The railtie hides most of it away from you, but it’s obvious that Paperclip wasn’t designed for backgrounding.


CarrierWave caches files before storing them, so although there isn’t a built-in endpoint for direct uploads, it probably shouldn’t be too difficult to implement your own (although only to filesystem). For direct S3 uploads there is carrierwave_direct, which provides an S3 form which is usable by AJAX, although multiple file uploads are a bit tricky.

Asynchronous processing/storing is given by carrierwave_backgrounder, which has some upsides:

  • background library support is wider than delayed_paperclip’s
  • the file can be both processed and stored in the background
  • the cached original can be displayed to the user while background job is working
class MyUploader < CarrierWave::Uploader::Base
  include CarrierWave::Backgrounder::Delay
class Photo < ActiveRecord::Base
  mount_uploader :image, MyUploader
  store_in_background :image

There is no explicit support for deleting in background. Replaced files are coincidentally deleted in new attachment’s background job (a separate job for deleting would be better), but removing the attachment or destroying the record synchronously deletes associated files.

It requires an additional column for storing the cached file, and another column can be added for information whether the background job is working. However, the latter column doesn’t handle parallel jobs well, same as delayed_paperclip.

Debugging job failures is the same as delayed_paperclip’s, it can only be done if the attachment hasn’t changed, or some special handling is implemented.

Setup of carrierwave_backgrounder is complex; ActiveRecord::Base and the uploader classes need to be extended with modules, two columns need to be added, and a class method called. The implementation of the library is complex as well, a lot of metaprogramming. This complexity caused bugs like breaking CarrierWave’s ability to remove attachments. It’s obvious that CarrierWave wasn’t designed for backgrounding.


Dragonfly does caching (the term is “retaining” here), so even though there isn’t a built-in endpoint for direct uploads, it probably shouldn’t be too difficult to implement your own (although it would require some code-digging). However, it seems that the storage has to be the same for caching and storing, which is a bit limiting.

Dragonfly doesn’t have an extension for backgrounding. Since Dragonfly does processing on-the-fly (not on upload), it might appear that backgrounding isn’t that important here. That can’t be further from the truth. A file upload itself still takes a lot of time, already for files like images, let alone videos or other large files, where it’s basically unusable (since a database transaction is open during the whole upload).

The paperdragon gem provides a nice thin interface on top of Dragonfly, giving it the ability to do upfront processing. It promotes explicitness, and one of the advantages are that processing/storing/deleting can be put into background (since they’re not tied to ORM callbacks). However, with great power comes great reponsibility; you have all the freedom you need, but you still have to do a lot of manual work to implement it right, because you need to take care about a lot of things (generalizing jobs for all attachments, graceful degradation, thread-safety, introspection etc).

file = params.delete("image")

photo = Photo.create(params)

# This can be put into background
photo.image(file) do |v|
  v.process!(:thumb) { |job| job.thumb!("300x300#") }


Refile ships with a complete solution for direct uploads. It comes with a Rack endpoint for direct uploads, and has special support for direct S3 uploads. On top of that it comes with complete plug-and-play JavaScript for hooking the endpoint to a file field. This is a big plus for user experience.

Refile doesn’t have support for storing in background, for the same reasons as Dragonfly, because it does on-the-fly processing. If you’re using S3 for both cache and store, Refile will store the cached file by issuing an S3 COPY command (instead of reuploading the file). This is fast, but you’re still making an HTTP request inside a transaction. There is currently an open issue on Refile for adding backgrounding, but it in my opinion it would require a rewrite.


Shrine is a relatively new library for file uploads. It was created to solve limitations of existing libraries; it comes with a greater arsenal of features, with a much simpler implementation and more flexibility.

Shrine, like Refile, ships with an endpoint for direct uploads, with special support for direct S3 uploads. It doesn’t ship with a plug-and-play JavaScript solution, instead it encourages you to use one of the excellent JavaScript libraries for generic file uploads.

Shrine has built-in support for putting processing/storing/deleting into a background job. It supports any backgrounding library, because instead of shipping with integrations for each and every backgrounding library, it simply lets you call the background job yourself.

Shrine.plugin :backgrounding
Shrine::Attacher.promote { |data| UploadJob.perform_async(data) }
Shrine::Attacher.delete { |data| DeleteJob.perform_async(data) }
class UploadJob
  include Sidekiq::Worker
  def perform(data)
class DeleteJob
  include Sidekiq::Worker
  def perform(data)

The UploadJob is triggered when the file is “promoted” (moved from cache to store), while the DeleteJob is triggered when: a) record is destroyed, b) attachment is removed, or c) attachment is replaced.

At first glance it might seem that the setup is more complicated than in other solutions. However, if you observe what code you are required to write, you’ll notice it’s actually quite minimal. The only thing Shrine requires from you is that you call your preferred backgrounding library. This design is intentional; background jobs should be declared in your application, not hidden away in a library.

The way Shrine is designed makes it easy to know when the background job is finished (changes are saved to the <attachment>_data column) so you can easily degrade to the original cached file, or the versions generated in the foreground (with the recache plugin).

The jobs are thread-safe in updating the <attachment>_data column, and they adapt to changes in attachment or record being deleted. It’s also easy to debug failing jobs, since the cached file’s data is given directly in job’s arguments.


Making phases of file upload (caching, processing, storing, deleting) asynchronous is essential for scaling and good user experience. However, in all of the “mature” file upload libraries asynchronicity is either an incomplete and flawed afterthought, or nonexistent (with the exception of Refile which at least has direct uploads).

Shrine is the only file upload library with complete asynchronicity support built-in. Its design allows you to use any backgrounding library, and the implementation is robust and transparent.

Janko Marohnić

Janko Marohnić

A passionate Ruby backend developer who fell in love with Roda & Sequel, and told Rails “it’s not me, it’s you”. He enjoys working with JSON APIs and SQL databases, while prioritizing testing, and always tries to find the best library for the job. Creator of Shrine and test.vim.

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